A Solid Foundation for Accelerating the Development of a Modern Industrial System
The core competitive strength of the industrial sector has been markedly increased. The manufacturing sector has grown steadily in scale. In 2022, the added value of China's manufacturing reached 27.7% of GDP and nearly 30% of global manufacturing output, securing China's leading position in manufacturing for the 13th consecutive year. China is the only country in the world to possess all industrial categories as classified by the UN. It also leads the world in terms of output for over 200 of the 500 major categories of industrial products. This is a testament to China's formidable manufacturing capabilities and comprehensive support capacity. The innovative capacity of the manufacturing sector has also been markedly strengthened. In certain fields, China is either approaching or already meeting advanced global standards; in sectors where once it lagged behind, it is now gaining parity or moving into the lead.
The foundational role of agriculture has been continually consolidated. China has steadily increased overall agricultural production capacity, with annual grain output remaining above 650 million metric tons for eight consecutive years. China has achieved basic self-sufficiency in grain and absolute security in our food supply, which remains firmly in our own hands. The food crop production strategy based on farmland management and application of technology has been extensively implemented. China has accelerated the development of agricultural water conservancy infrastructure and developed 66.67 million hectares of high-standard farmland. The overall mechanization level of plowing, sowing, and harvesting has reached 73%, bringing about a substantial jump in our agricultural production efficiency and ability to ensure food security.
The quality and performance of the service industry has been continuously improved. The service industry continues to expand in scale. Despite significant challenges owing to the Covid-19 pandemic, its value-added equaled 52.8% of GDP in 2022, contributing 41.8% of economic growth, to account for around half of the national economy. Employment in the service industry has also climbed steadily, with a large number of new employees entering emerging industries, highlighting how the service industry functions as an “employment reservoir.” China has seen rapid growth of trade in services, with total import and export volume for services reaching nearly 6 trillion yuan in 2022. This has enabled China to retain its position as the world's second-largest trader of services for several consecutive years.
Infrastructure construction has been rapidly advanced. By the end of 2022, China's integrated transportation network exceeded 6 million kilometers in length; power transmission lines running at 220 kV and above exceeded 800,000 kilometers, and optical-fiber cables ran to almost 60 million kilometers in length. China's high-speed rail, expressway, power grid, and 5G networks are the world's largest. China has also achieved qualitative leaps in the construction of mega water conservancy projects, third-generation nuclear power, and the industrial internet, and it is a world leader in building offshore deepwater ports and hub airports. Steady strides have been registered in the construction of major logistics infrastructure. Thanks to rapid improvements in infrastructure for innovation, China has put in place a comparatively complete national system of major scientific and technological infrastructure.