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Whole-Process Democracy Is Integral to All Facets of People’s Democracy

By Qiu Ping Source: Updated: 2023-06-26

China's whole-process people's democracy is supported by a complete set of institutions and procedures and has full-fledged participation in practice. It combines electoral democracy and consultative democracy, and it is implemented through a combination of elections, consultations, decision-making, management, and supervision across economic, political, cultural, social, environmental, and other fields. This consistent, comprehensive, and coordinated system involves regular and extensive participation, ensuring that the people's voices are heard and their wishes are represented in every aspect of China's political and social life.

China holds extensive elections, covering various aspects of national political and social life, including elections for state organs, village and neighborhood committees, and employee representatives in enterprises and public institutions. Elections in China are equal, with people's right to vote and to be elected fully guaranteed, and each vote having the same value. Elections in China are genuine, not manipulated by money, and voters choose the candidate they trust according to their own will. Elections in China are also evolving, with new and diverse forms and means of voting continuously being developed as economic and social progress is achieved.

Consultative democracy is an important way of implementing whole-process people's democracy. In various fields and at all levels, the people participate in extensive consultations before and during decision-making through various means and methods, including proposals, conferences, symposiums, deliberations, hearings, evaluations, discussions, online activities, and public opinion surveys. Consultations relate to major issues concerning reform, development, stability, and the people's own interests.

Democratic decision-making is a key facet of whole-process people's democracy. People's congresses and their standing committees at all levels ensure public participation in legislative activities through various channels and make every effort to see that every piece of legislation reflects the people's will and wins their support. People's governments at all levels listen to opinions from all stakeholders on major decisions to be implemented and major decision-making proposals put forward by various parties, ensuring the people's participation in decision-making through various channels and in various forms. At the primary level, people can put forward opinions and suggestions on major governance issues and participate in the processes of making and implementing decisions.

As citizens, people exercise their rights and fulfill their responsibilities and obligations as defined by the Constitution, thereby participating in the management of national political and social life at all levels and in all fields. All urban and rural residents have the opportunity to manage, serve, educate, and oversee their own communities in terms of public affairs and public welfare initiatives.

The forms of oversight under whole-process people's democracy are many and diverse. They include oversight by people's congresses, democratic oversight, administrative oversight, oversight by supervisory bodies, judicial oversight, audit-based oversight, financial and accounting oversight, statistical oversight, public supervision, and oversight through public opinion.